disenfranchisement

Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote (known as disfranchisement) due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes: felonies. Jurisdictions vary as to whether they make such disfranchisement permanent, or restore suffrage after a person has served a sentence, or completed parole or probation.[1] Felony disenfranchisement is one among the collateral consequences of criminal conviction and the loss of rights due to conviction for criminal offense.[2]

Opponents have argued that such disfranchisement restricts and conflicts with principles of universal suffrage.[3] It can affect civic and communal participation in general.[1] Opponents argue that felony disenfranchisement can create dangerous political incentives to skew criminal law in favour of disproportionately targeting groups who are political opponents of those who hold power.

 

Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition

Changes of Phase

There are four states of matter in the universe: plasma, gas, liquid and solid. But, matter on Earth exists mostly in three distinct phases: gas, liquid and solid. A phase is a distinctive form of a substance, and matter can change among the phases. It may take extreme temperature, pressure or energy, but all matter can be changed.

There are six distinct changes of phase which happens to different substances at different temperatures. The six changes are:

  • Freezing: the substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
  • Melting: the substance changes back from the solid to the liquid.
  • Condensation: the substance changes from a gas to a liquid.
  • Vaporization: the substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
  • Sublimation: the substance changes directly from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid phase.
  • Deposition: the substance changes directly from a gas to a solid without going through the liquid phase
  • Examples of Phase Change

    Water vapor turning to frost is an example of deposition.
    Deposition Leaves

    I’m sure you know what most of these phases look like. Freezing is when liquid water freezes into ice cubes. Melting is when those ice cubes melt. Condensation is when dew forms on grass in the morning. Vaporization is when water boils and turns into steam.

    Deposition is one you may not know, but this happens when water vapor goes directly to freezing, like when there is frost on a cold winter morning. An example of sublimation happens when dry ice turns directly into gas. Gas can also change into a plasma. In order to do this, you have to add an enormous amount of energy to the gas in order to free up the electrons from the atoms.

  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/phase-change-evaporation-condensation-freezing-melting.html

Rhythm in Poetry – The Basics

poetry-in-garden-web11

 

 

 

 

 

 

When you read rhyming poetry, one of the things you might notice is how the words often have a nice rhythmical quality. That is, there is a pattern to the rhythm of the words that makes them fun to say and easy to remember. Sometimes the rhythm is a simple one, and sometimes it’s more complex, but it’s not there by accident. Poets arrange their words in such a way as to create those rhythmical patterns.

When rhyming poems also have a rhythm in the words, they are much more fun to read. By contrast, rhyming poems that do not have a rhythm are usually not as enjoyable to read.

the next several lessons, show you how to identify the rhythms in poems and how to write rhythmical poems of your own so that others will enjoy reading them.

Rhythm in Words

You probably know that, in music, the rhythm of a song is the “beat,” often created by instruments such as drums, bass guitars, etc. In fact, in popular music the drummer and bass guitarist in a band are often referred to as the “rhythm section” because they establish the rhythm for the rest of the musicians to follow.

Unlike a song, poems don’t have a rhythm section. There is no drummer or conductor establishing the rhythm. Instead, the rhythm is set by the “stresses” or “accents” in the words themselves. Allow me to explain.

In most words that have more than one syllable, one of the syllables is pronounced more strongly than the others. We say that this syllable is “stressed” or “accented.” For example, the word “apple” has two syllables – ap-ple – and the first syllable is pronounced more strongly than the second. That’s why the word is pronounced “AP-pull” and not “ap-PULL.”

If a word has just a single syllable, that syllable might be stressed, or it might not be. Generally, short words like “a” and “I” and “the” are not stressed. Nouns and verbs (things and action words), on the other hand are often stressed, even when they are just one syllable long. So, for example, words like “cat” and “jump” are stressed syllables.

The easiest way to tell if a word is stressed or not is to put it in a sentence and then read it aloud. Listen carefully to how you pronounce it to see if you can tell which words or syllables are stressed and which ones aren’t.

Let’s take a look at an example. Read the following line and see if you can hear the stressed syllables.

My mother ate an apple and my father ate a pear.

Could you hear that every other syllable was stressed? One way to write this to make it more obvious is to capitalize the stressed syllables and write the unstressed syllables in lowercase letters, like this:

my MOTH-er ATE an AP-ple AND my FATH-er ATE a PEAR.

Now can you hear it? I hope you can see that, by writing your words in such a way that they form repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables, you can add rhythm to your poems.

 

 

This Thing Called “Meter”

Syllables and Feet

The last thing I want you to know about in this lesson is “feet.”

In certain types of poems, such as haiku, the writer counts the number of syllables in each line. In rhythmical poetry, however, poets don’t count the number of syllables in each line; they count the number of “feet.”

A “foot” is the group of stresses and non-stresses that define the meter of a poem. In our example line, above, each foot is two syllables long. That is, each foot is made up of one unstressed syllable and one stressed syllable. If I were to draw a line between each foot in the line, it would look like this:

my MOTH | er ATE | an AP | ple AND | my FATH | er ATE | a PEAR.

This makes it easy to see that the line has seven feet. That is to say, the pattern of one unstressed syllable and one stressed syllable has been repeated seven times.

(Of course, when you write poems, you don’t want to write them in UPPER and lower case letters with lines between the feet; that would make your poems pretty hard for people to read. I just do it here so that you can see the stresses and the feet.)

Oh, and one more thing: Poems can have any number of feet in their lines. The important thing is to pick a pattern and stick with it. When you write poems, your lines can have as few or as many feet as you like. For example, here’s a very short poem I wrote in which each line has just two feet:

My cat is nice.
My cat is fat.
My cat is cute.
I like my cat.

If I were to write it to show you the stresses and the feet, it would look like this:

my CAT | is NICE.
my CAT | is FAT.
my CAT | is CUTE.
i LIKE | my CAT.

 

 

Saying Things Rhythmically

For example, let’s say I wrote the following line:

My mother said I should go to the store

(my MOTH-er SAID i should GO to the STORE)

If we look at which syllables are stressed and which ones aren’t, we’ll see that the rhythm doesn’t stay the same for the entire line.

However, we can easily rewrite the line like this:

My mother sent me to the store

(my MOTH-er SENT me TO  the STORE)

 

The Chimney Sweeper: When my mother died I was very young BY WILLIAM BLAKE

William Blake Biography.com

Artist, Poet(1757–1827)
William Blake was a 19th century writer and artist who is regarded as a seminal figure of the Romantic Age. His writings have influenced countless writers and artists through the ages, and he has been deemed both a major poet and an original thinker.

Synopsis

Born in 1757 in London, England, William Blake began writing at an early age and claimed to have had his first vision, of a tree full of angels, at age 10. He studied engraving and grew to love Gothic art, which he incorporated into his own unique works. A misunderstood poet, artist and visionary throughout much of his life, Blake found admirers late in life and has been vastly influential since his death in 1827.

Early Years

William Blake was born on November 28, 1757, in the Soho district of London, England. He only briefly attended school, being chiefly educated at home by his mother. The Bible had an early, profound influence on Blake, and it would remain a lifetime source of inspiration, coloring his life and works with intense spirituality.

At an early age, Blake began experiencing visions, and his friend and journalist Henry Crabb Robinson wrote that Blake saw God’s head appear in a window when Blake was 4 years old. He also allegedly saw the prophet Ezekiel under a tree and had a vision of “a tree filled with angels.” Blake’s visions would have a lasting effect on the art and writings that he produced.

The Young Artist

Blake’s artistic ability became evident in his youth, and by age 10, he was enrolled at Henry Pars’s drawing school, where he sketched the human figure by copying from plaster casts of ancient statues. At age 14, he apprenticed with an engraver. Blake’s master was the engraver to the London Society of Antiquaries, and Blake was sent to Westminster Abbey to make drawings of tombs and monuments, where his lifelong love of gothic art was seeded.

Also around this time, Blake began collecting prints of artists who had fallen out of vogue at the time, including Durer, Raphael and Michelangelo. In the catalog for an exhibition of his own work in 1809, nearly 40 years later, in fact, Blake would lambast artists “who endeavour to raise up a style against Rafael, Mich. Angelo, and the Antique.” He also rejected 18th century literary trends, preferring the Elizabethans (Shakespeare, Jonson and Spenser) and ancient ballads instead.

The Maturing Artist

In 1779, at age 21, Blake completed his seven-year apprenticeship and became a journeyman copy engraver, working on projects for book and print publishers. Also preparing himself for a career as a painter, that same year, he was admitted to the Royal Academy of Art’s Schools of Design, where he began exhibiting his own works in 1780. Blake’s artistic energies branched out at this point, and he privately published his Poetical Sketches (1783), a collection of poems that he had written over the previous 14 years.

In August 1782, Blake married Catherine Sophia Boucher, who was illiterate. Blake taught her how to read, write, draw and color (his designs and prints). He also helped her to experience visions, as he did. Catherine believed explicitly in her husband’s visions and his genius, and supported him in everything he did, right up to his death 45 years later.

One of the most traumatic events of William Blake’s life occurred in 1787, when his beloved brother, Robert, died from tuberculosis at age 24. At the moment of Robert’s death, Blake allegedly saw his spirit ascend through the ceiling, joyously; the moment, which entered into Blake’s psyche, greatly influenced his later poetry. The following year, Robert appeared to Blake in a vision and presented him with a new method of printing his works, which Blake called “illuminated printing.” Once incorporated, this method allowed Blake to control every aspect of the production of his art.

While Blake was an established engraver, soon he began receiving commissions to paint watercolors, and he painted scenes from the works of Milton, Dante, Shakespeare and the Bible.

The Move to Felpham and Charges of Sedition

In 1800, Blake accepted an invitation from poet William Hayley to move to the little seaside village of Felpham and work as his protégé. While the relationship between Hayley and Blake began to sour, Blake ran into trouble of a different stripe: In August 1803, Blake found a soldier, John Schofield, on the property and demanded that he leave. After Schofield refused and an argument ensued, Blake removed him by force. Schofield accused Blake of assault and, worse, of sedition, claiming that he had damned the king.

The punishments for sedition in England at the time (during the Napoleonic Wars) were severe. Blake anguished, uncertain of his fate. Hayley hired a lawyer on Blake’s behalf, and he was acquitted in January 1804, by which time Blake and Catherine had moved back to London.

Later Years

In 1804, Blake began to write and illustrate Jerusalem (1804-20), his most ambitious work to date. He also began showing more work at exhibitions (including Chaucer’s Canterbury Pilgrims and Satan Calling Up His Legions), but these works were met with silence, and the one published review was absurdly negative; the reviewer called the exhibit a display of “nonsense, unintelligibleness and egregious vanity,” and referred to Blake as “an unfortunate lunatic.”

Blake was devastated by the review and lack of attention to his works, and, subsequently, he withdrew more and more from any attempt at success. From 1809 to 1818, he engraved few plates (there is no record of Blake producing any commercial engravings from 1806 to 1813). He also sank deeper into poverty, obscurity and paranoia.

In 1819, however, Blake began sketching a series of “visionary heads,” claiming that the historical and imaginary figures that he depicted actually appeared and sat for him. By 1825, Blake had sketched more than 100 of them, including those of Solomon and Merlin the magician and those included in “The Man Who Built the Pyramids” and “Harold Killed at the Battle of Hastings”; along with the most famous visionary head, that included in Blake’s “The Ghost of a Flea.”

Remaining artistically busy, between 1823 and 1825, Blake engraved 21 designs for an illustrated Book of Job (from the Bible) and Dante’s Inferno. In 1824, he began a series of 102 watercolor illustrations of Dante—a project that would be cut short by Blake’s death in 1827.

In the final years of his life, William Blake suffered from recurring bouts of an undiagnosed disease that he called “that sickness to which there is no name.” He died on August 12, 1827, leaving unfinished watercolor illustrations to Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress and an illuminated manuscript of the Bible’s Book of Genesis. In death, as in life, Blake received short shrift from observers, and obituaries tended to underscore his personal idiosyncrasies at the expense of his artistic accomplishments. The Literary Chronicle, for example, described him as “one of those ingenious persons … whose eccentricities were still more remarkable than their professional abilities.”

Unappreciated in life, William Blake has since become a giant in literary and artistic circles, and his visionary approach to art and writing have not only spawned countless, spellbound speculations about Blake, they have inspired a vast array of artists and writers.

When my mother died I was very young, 
And my father sold me while yet my tongue 
Could scarcely cry ” ‘weep! ‘weep! ‘weep! ‘weep!” 
So your chimneys I sweep & in soot I sleep. 
There’s little Tom Dacre, who cried when his head 
That curled like a lamb’s back, was shaved, so I said, 
“Hush, Tom! never mind it, for when your head’s bare, 
You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair.” 
And so he was quiet, & that very night, 
As Tom was a-sleeping he had such a sight! 
That thousands of sweepers, Dick, Joe, Ned, & Jack, 
Were all of them locked up in coffins of black; 
And by came an Angel who had a bright key, 
And he opened the coffins & set them all free; 
Then down a green plain, leaping, laughing they run, 
And wash in a river and shine in the Sun. 
Then naked & white, all their bags left behind, 
They rise upon clouds, and sport in the wind. 
And the Angel told Tom, if he’d be a good boy, 
He’d have God for his father & never want joy. 
And so Tom awoke; and we rose in the dark 
And got with our bags & our brushes to work. 
Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy & warm; 
So if all do their duty, they need not fear harm. 

What is pragmatics?

A Definition of Pragmatics

  • the study of the practical aspects of human action and thought.
  • the study of the use of linguistic signs, words and sentences, in actual situations.[1]
  • Pragmatics outlines the study of meaning in the interactional context

  • It looks beyond the literal meaning of an utterance and considers how meaning is constructed as well as focusing on implied meanings. It considers language as an instrument of interaction, what people mean when they use language and how we communicate and understand each other.
  • Jenny Thomas[2] says that pragmatics considers:
  • the negotiation of meaning between speaker and listener.
  • the context of the utterance.
  • the meaning potential of an utterance.
  • What would happen to language if Pragmatics did not exist?

  • Pragmatics acts as the basis for all language interactions and contact. It is a key feature to the understanding of language and the responses that follow this. Therefore, without the fucntion of Pragmatics, there would be very little understanding of intention and meaning.
  • We would like to demonstrate this by showing you how life would be WITHOUT Pragmatics:
  • ‘Can you pass the salt?’Literal Meaning: Are you physically able to do this task?
    Literal Response: ‘Yes’

    (Pragmatic Meaning: Will you pass me the salt?
    Pragmtic Response: pass the salt to the speaker.)

    ‘What time do you call this?’

    Literal Meaning: What time is it?
    Literal Response: A time (e.g. ‘twenty to one.’)

    (Pragmatic Meaning: a different question entirely, e.g. Why are you so late?
    Pragmatic Response: Explain the reason for being so late.)

Order of Operations

Problem: Evaluate the following arithmetic expression:

3 + 4 x 2

Solution:

It seems that each student interpreted the problem differently, resulting in two different answers. Student 1 performed the operation of addition first, then multiplication; whereas student 2 performed multiplication first, then addition. When performing arithmetic operations there can be only one correct answer. We need a set of rules in order to avoid this kind of confusion. Mathematicians have devised a standard order of operations for calculations involving more than one arithmetic operation.

Rule 1: First perform any calculations inside parentheses.

Rule 2: Next perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.

Rule 3: Lastly, perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.

The above problem was solved correctly by Student 2 since she followed Rules 2 and 3. Let’s look at some examples of solving arithmetic expressions using these rules.

Teachers Spend Hundreds of Dollars a Year on School Supplies. That’s a Problem.

Last week, the courageous Oklahoma elementary teacher Teresa Danks earned nationwide media coverage by panhandling for school supplies. After the 3rd grade teacher held up a sign on a highway overpass, her viral photo raked in more than $25,000 in donations. Many teachers saw it as a brave and original way to call attention to a problem that they know all too well.
While other teachers may not take to the highway, Dank’s need for school supplies is unfortunately not unusual. There are thousands of stories like hers around the country. According to a survey of more than 1,800 public and private school teachers conducted in the 2015-16 school year by the nonprofit AdoptAClassroom.org (of which I am the executive director), the average American educator spends $600 of her own money every year on basic supplies.
These funds not only cover typical staples such as copier paper or colored pencils, but also go toward clothing and personal hygiene necessities for students who need them. In fact, two-thirds of all classroom supplies are purchased by teachers. And 91 percent of teachers—many of whom receive modest pay to begin with—purchase basic supplies for students whose families cannot afford them. All of these expenditures can add up to more than $1 billion every year out of educators’ own pockets.
A Common Experience
As a nonprofit leader who works to connect teachers with funding for school supplies, I know this problem well. In my work with donors and educators, I hear daily testimonials from teachers that a lack of school supplies handicaps their ability to do their job.
Consider Samsam Warsame, a Somali-American teacher in Minneapolis who teaches math and science to Somali and Ethiopian 1st graders, many of whom once lived in refugee camps. To provide an enriching learning experience, she spent $300 of her own money on math and science supplies in the first few months of school—money her students’ parents didn’t have. But she worried about how much money she would have to spend the rest of the year to continue providing for her students.
A lack of supplies can be particularly surprising for teachers who are just beginning to create their own classrooms. In her first year of teaching, Chloe Cole, a teacher from Austin, Texas, discovered quickly how expensive school supplies, particularly those involving technology, could be. She said that while many people think teachers are given buckets of supplies at the beginning of the year to do their jobs, that is far from reality.
When teachers are able to provide their students—particularly those from low-income backgrounds—with adequate supplies, their learning experience is transformed. Becca Hanson, an elementary school art teacher in St. Louis Park, Minn., found that giving her students a “limitless classroom” is a huge deal, especially in her low-income school. “When I am able to give them opportunities through different supplies, they see that they are not limited,” she said. “They see that they can do more and be more. It gives them a lot of self-assurance.”
A Growing Need
Making teachers responsible for funding basic necessities in their own classrooms is not an adequate solution to the problem. What if all of America’s teachers stopped spending their own money to buy supplies for their students for one year? Imagine how many classrooms would lack the resources children need to write, read, learn how to use fundamental technology, or work on creative projects.
This problem shows no sign of disappearing any time soon. Per-student funding for public education has dropped in recent years. More than 30 states spent less money on students in 2014 than they did before the Great Recession—in some cases, at least 10 percent less. We are also facing teacher shortages in school districts across the country, especially as teacher burnout increases. In my home state of Minnesota, for example, more than 25 percent of new teachers leave the classroom after three years. And with a majority of public school students living in poverty, many come from homes where their parents simply can’t afford to make up for a lack of supplies in school.
A Necessary Solution
In the coming months, as a new school year begins, the country will debate major changes in education policy around school choice, vouchers, and teacher training. Amidst these important discussions, we should not lose sight of what may seem like a very small, but very real, problem: Students need tools to learn.
It’s incumbent on parents, school districts, and policymakers to remember that sometimes the problem right in front of you is the one most fixable. Parents must urge their local school districts and state legislatures to adequately fund education, including by providing supplies to students who need them. Teachers must continue to make noise about the supplies they need the most and which districts have the greatest needs. No matter what changes we make on major policies, teachers—and their ability to both teach and make learning exciting for children—remain the most important component of education. We should not let a lack of basic supplies keep them from doing their jobs. We owe better funding to our children as well as our teachers.
If we all do our part, a classroom full of pens, notebooks, art supplies, and science materials will be in reach for every child who walks in the schoolhouse door.
Ann Ness is the executive director of the Minneapolis-based nonprofit AdoptAClassroom.org, a crowdsourcing platform which works to raise funds for school supplies in classrooms across the country.
WEB ONLY
RELATED STORIES
“Oklahoma Teacher Panhandles to Raise Money for Classroom Supplies,” (Teaching Now) July 26, 2017.
“New Survey Details How Teachers Use Their Own Money to Fill in Equity Gaps,” (Teaching Now) November 16, 2016.
“For New Teachers, Classrooms Aren’t Just Blank Slates. They’re Blank, Expensive Slates,” (Teaching Now) March 27, 2016.
“Donors Choose Helps Teachers Deliver Food, Clothing to Students in Need,” (Teacher Beat) February 13, 2017.

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